The Status Report article further states that "The barrier crashes of the two smaller buses showed that in all cases, the dummies secured by lap belts ,measured HIC values exceeding 1,000 - an in some cases, scores in the 2,000 plus range were calculated. All unrestrained dummies had HIC values of less than 1,000.
The test films showed that many of the belted dummies heads struck the seats in front of them so violently that the force bent the heads back on the necks al almost a 90 degree angle. This action was severe enough to be judged to cause serious injury.
In the large school buses, the HIC values for the lap belted dummies were about three times greater than for the unrestrained dummies.
It should be remembered that generally speaking, frontal collisions, particularly head on collisions between two moving vehicles, are much more severe than rear or side impact collisions.
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